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The function check_flag() is really interesting. First of all, it checks two values. That values should be set by mmap() and write() call to the driver device. Later that values will be xored with one another and the result would be actually checked in check_flag().

There are two magic values that we can bruteforce:


if ( len_1 == 7
* ((unsigned __int64)(((unsigned __int64)(len_1 - (0x2492492492492493LL * (unsigned __int128)len_1 >> 64)) >> 1)
+ (0x2492492492492493LL * (unsigned __int128)len_1 >> 64)) >> 2) )

...
if ( (unsigned int)(need16 - 1) > 0x1F
|| (v28 + 2) * (v28 + 1) + ((v28 + 2) * (v28 + 1) - 1) * ((v28 + 2) * (v28 + 1) - 1) != 0x16C93 )



The python scripts.

#!/usr/bin/python

for v13 in xrange(1023):
if v13 == 7 * ((((v13 - (0x2492492492492493 * v13 >> 64)) >> 1) + (0x2492492492492493 * v13 >> 64)) >> 2):
print v13

and

#!/usr/bin/python

for v33 in xrange(1023):
if (v33 + 2) * (v33 + 1) + ((v33 + 2) * (v33 + 1) - 1) * ((v33 + 2) * (v33 + 1) - 1) == 93331:
print v33


Will give results 7*x for the first, and 16 for the second. So the password length should be a power of 7.

Now we should reverse engineer whole function and write a solver. We can actually debug it with GDB, orgs are provided us with a very useful intro to debugging.


#!/usr/bin/env python

rev = "#v(2fx]PJZF[wY48E=,5hyAkL>s3?m|~;pS_WNgIjOuU0Q.\$G7+eCl^d1rq9XKDa)':BcHn&zTob}<Mi*!R{6t-V"

out = ''

for chrToFind, carry in zip('bios{1}', [-1, 0, 0, -1, 0, -1, 0]):

idx = rev.find(chr(ord(chrToFind) - 16)) + carry

strbin = bin(idx)

toPrint = strbin.replace("b", "").replace("0", "").replace("1", "c")
toPrint = toPrint.rjust(8, '')[1:]

print("[%s:%s:%d/%x] %s" % (chrToFind, chr(ord(chrToFind) - 16), idx, idx, toPrint))

out += toPrint

print("out: %s" % out)



The final code will look like this.


#include <sys/cdefs.h>
#include <err.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>

#define _PATH_DEV_MAPPER "/dev/chall2"

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int devfd;
char *buf;
char *p;
int i;

buf = malloc(50);

if ((devfd = open(_PATH_DEV_MAPPER, O_RDWR)) == -1)
err(EXIT_FAILURE, "Cannot open %s", _PATH_DEV_MAPPER);

for (i = 0; i < 16; i++){
ioctl(devfd, 0x20004B01);
}

p = mmap(0, 50, PROT_READ + PROT_WRITE, 0, devfd, 0);
strcpy(p, "cccccccccccccccccccccc");
write(devfd, "\x01", 1);

ioctl(devfd, 0x20004B02, "1234567", 7);

`