Tags: radare2 french rev 


Hello world,

This writeup concerns the most difficult challenge I did on the CTF (having occupied myself a few hours to break it). At first glance, we have an "obfuscated" binary, which makes system calls to mmap and mprotect: we immediately think of a packer, and we will therefore have to unpack it.

## Unpacking crackme
Unpacking is not a problem on Linux when you are used to malware packers on Windows, thanks to radare2 and its visual mode.

The crack entrypoint therefore looks like this:
;-- entry0:
;-- rip:
0x0046cbe8 50 push rax
0x0046cbe9 52 push rdx
0x0046cbea e8c8020000 call 0x46ceb7
0x0046cbef 55 push rbp
0x0046cbf0 53 push rbx
0x0046cbf1 51 push rcx
0x0046cbf2 52 push rdx
0x0046cbf3 4801fe add rsi, rdi
0x0046cbf6 56 push rsi
0x0046cbf7 4889fe mov rsi, rdi
0x0046cbfa 4889d7 mov rdi, rdx
0x0046cbfd 31db xor ebx, ebx
0x0046cbff 31c9 xor ecx, ecx
0x0046cc01 4883cdff or rbp, 0xffffffffffffffff
We have a call to a function 0x46ceb7, followed by what looks like a decompression function, especially aplib or one of its variants. So we have:
┌ 6: fcn.0046ceb7 ();
│ 0x0046ceb7 5d pop rbp
└ 0x0046ceb8 e840ffffff call fcn.0046cdfd
followed by
; CALL XREF from fcn.0046ceb7 @ 0x46ceb8
┌ 186: fcn.0046cdfd (int64_t arg_0h);
│ ; var int64_t var_bh @ rbp-0xb
│ ; var int64_t var_10h @ rsp+0x30
│ ; var int64_t var_8h @ rsp+0x38
│ ; arg int64_t arg_0h @ rsp+0x40
│ 0x0046cdfd 5f pop rdi ; /proc/self/exe
│ 0x0046cdfe 29f6 sub esi, esi
│ 0x0046ce00 6a02 push 2 ; SYS_open
│ 0x0046ce02 58 pop rax
│ 0x0046ce03 0f05 syscall
│ 0x0046ce05 50 push rax
│ 0x0046ce06 488db70f0000. lea rsi, [rdi + 0xf]
│ 0x0046ce0d ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046ce0e 83e0fe and eax, 0xfffffffe ; 4294967294
│ 0x0046ce11 4189c6 mov r14d, eax
│ 0x0046ce14 56 push rsi
│ 0x0046ce15 5b pop rbx
│ 0x0046ce16 ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046ce17 92 xchg eax, edx
│ 0x0046ce18 4801da add rdx, rbx
│ 0x0046ce1b ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046ce1c 4195 xchg eax, r13d
│ 0x0046ce1e ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046ce1f 4901f5 add r13, rsi
│ 0x0046ce22 488d8df5ffff. lea rcx, [var_bh]
│ 0x0046ce29 448b39 mov r15d, dword [rcx]
│ 0x0046ce2c 4c29f9 sub rcx, r15
│ 0x0046ce2f 4529f7 sub r15d, r14d
│ 0x0046ce32 5f pop rdi
│ 0x0046ce33 4829ca sub rdx, rcx
│ 0x0046ce36 52 push rdx
│ 0x0046ce37 50 push rax
│ 0x0046ce38 4929cd sub r13, rcx
│ 0x0046ce3b 57 push rdi
│ 0x0046ce3c 51 push rcx
│ 0x0046ce3d 4d29c9 sub r9, r9
│ 0x0046ce40 4183c8ff or r8d, 0xffffffff ; -1
│ 0x0046ce44 6a22 push 0x22 ; '"' ; 34
│ 0x0046ce46 415a pop r10
│ 0x0046ce48 52 push rdx
│ 0x0046ce49 5e pop rsi
│ 0x0046ce4a 6a03 push 3 ; 3
│ 0x0046ce4c 5a pop rdx
│ 0x0046ce4d 29ff sub edi, edi
│ 0x0046ce4f 6a09 push 9 ; SYS_mmap
│ 0x0046ce51 58 pop rax
│ 0x0046ce52 0f05 syscall
│ 0x0046ce54 4901c6 add r14, rax
│ 0x0046ce57 4889442410 mov qword [var_8h], rax
│ 0x0046ce5c 4897 xchg rax, rdi
│ 0x0046ce5e 448b442408 mov r8d, dword [var_10h]
│ 0x0046ce63 6a12 push 0x12 ; 18
│ 0x0046ce65 415a pop r10
│ 0x0046ce67 4c89ee mov rsi, r13
│ 0x0046ce6a 6a09 push 9 ; SYS_mmap
│ 0x0046ce6c 58 pop rax
│ 0x0046ce6d 0f05 syscall
│ 0x0046ce6f 488b542418 mov rdx, qword [arg_0h]
│ 0x0046ce74 59 pop rcx
│ 0x0046ce75 51 push rcx
│ 0x0046ce76 4801c2 add rdx, rax
│ 0x0046ce79 4829c8 sub rax, rcx
│ 0x0046ce7c 4989c4 mov r12, rax
│ 0x0046ce7f 4801e8 add rax, rbp
│ 0x0046ce82 50 push rax
│ 0x0046ce83 482500f0ffff and rax, 0xfffffffffffff000
│ 0x0046ce89 50 push rax
│ 0x0046ce8a 4829c2 sub rdx, rax
│ 0x0046ce8d 52 push rdx
│ 0x0046ce8e 4889de mov rsi, rbx
│ 0x0046ce91 ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046ce92 50 push rax
│ 0x0046ce93 4889e1 mov rcx, rsp
│ 0x0046ce96 4a8d1423 lea rdx, [rbx + r12]
│ 0x0046ce9a 4989d5 mov r13, rdx
│ 0x0046ce9d ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046ce9e 50 push rax
│ 0x0046ce9f ad lodsd eax, dword [rsi]
│ 0x0046cea0 4190 xchg eax, r8d
│ 0x0046cea2 4889f7 mov rdi, rsi
│ 0x0046cea5 5e pop rsi
│ 0x0046cea6 ffd5 call rbp
│ 0x0046cea8 59 pop rcx
│ 0x0046cea9 5e pop rsi
│ 0x0046ceaa 5f pop rdi
│ 0x0046ceab 5d pop rbp
│ 0x0046ceac 6a05 push 5 ; 5
│ 0x0046ceae 5a pop rdx
│ 0x0046ceaf 6a0a push 0xa ; 10
│ 0x0046ceb1 58 pop rax
│ 0x0046ceb2 0f05 syscall
└ 0x0046ceb4 41ffe5 jmp r13
When debugging the calls in visual mode (F7), we can see alignment calculations to recover the size of the binary to be mapped and of the "anonymous" area to be created. Then, we see two mmap syscalls. The first is used to make an "anonymous" mapping which will contain the decompression and mapping code, then another one to load the binary. We then have a "call rbp" (which calls the decompression function located at 0x0046cbef, before doing an mprotect on the allocated page and jumping on it.

Once the jump is made, we land here:
0x7fb3749e3ed0 e84a000000 call 0x7fb3749e3f1f
0x7fb3749e3ed5 83f949 cmp ecx, 0x49 ; 73
┌─< 0x7fb3749e3ed8 7544 jne 0x7fb3749e3f1e
│ 0x7fb3749e3eda 53 push rbx
│ 0x7fb3749e3edb 57 push rdi
Same stuff as earlier, we enter the call (F7 in visual mode), and we fall back on another function which performs other operations, followed by
0x7fb3749e401e 41ff66f8 jmp qword [r14 - 8]

We can reasonably think that we are approaching our OEP, so we position a breakpoint (F2) and continue the execution (F9) before returning to single-step mode.

Then, we get this
;-- rip:
0x0048c48e 0f05 syscall
0x0048c490 5a pop rdx
0x0048c491 c3 ret

and once we reach `ret`, we finally get the OEP of the unpacked binary! We just have to dump the program, first by listing the sections with "dm":

[0x0044fd80]> dm
0x0000000000400000 - 0x000000000048d000 * usr 564K s r-x unk0 unk0 ; map.home_supersnail_Documents_hack_lab_AeroCTF_goaway.r_x
0x000000000048d000 - 0x0000000000525000 - usr 608K s r-- unk1 unk1
0x0000000000525000 - 0x000000000055a000 - usr 212K s rw- unk2 unk2

We can therefore dump the unpacked binary with the `wtf goaway.unpack 0x15a000 @0x400000` command, the size of the binary being 0x55a000-0x400000.

Doing `strings` on the unpacked crackme, we can see that it was written in ... the Go language, the beginning of the nightmare.
## Reversing Go for fun and chocapicz
Unfortunately for me, the crackme was written in Go: indeed, a fairly substantial runtime is found to be embedded in Go programs, making it difficult to identify the "useful" functions and the Go runtime ones. However, Go's RTTI mechanism still allows us to get out of it, since the name of the functions (and maybe the types of variables / arguments) is still preserved, which greatly facilitates our task.

My first attempt was to use r2-gohelper , however the script only renamed a few functions, making it completely useless. In addition, radare2 is still too limited for static analysis, so I took out my good old IDA Free to analyze the "main.main" function (one of the few functions identified by r2-gohelper).

After a failed attempt to understand all the code of the runtime, I ended up having the good idea to make a "string search" in IDA, which found a lot of function names. Not having IDAPython (because Free edition, thank you Ilfak \o/), I started doing manual resolution of RTTIs for each function called:

I finally got something like this after a while renaming everything:


Another difficult point was to understand the calling convention used by Go.
Actually, unlike C where a single parameter is returned, Go can return several return values, which are copied onto the stack frame of the calling function. So the stack looks something like this:
| ebp backup |
| return address |
| argument 1 |
| ... |
| argument n |
| retour 1 |
| ... |
| retour n |
| local vars |
Also comes the "slice" mechanism much used by Go, which is actually a structure that could be defined like this (in 64 bits):
struct slice {
void *pointer;
uint64_t size;
uint64_t allocated_size;
Once this is understood, we can finally study the operation of the program in good conditions.

## Crackme algorithm
The crackme starts by displaying the welcome message, then reading and storing user input (with bufio.Reader.ReadString).The crackme then removes the character "\n", before creating a HashMap.

This HashMap contains a permutation table, which will be useful later. Then, the crackme creates an array of slices which point to 16-byte "strings", which curiously look like a hash. Then, after checking the size of the flag (which must also be 16 bytes), we land to a first loop on the characters of the flag. For each character, we compute the MD5 hash of the character.


Then we recover the permutation value corresponding to the index of the character of the string in the hashmap, and compare the hash md5 to the slice whose index is the permutation:


In "pythonized" pseudocode, we would get something like this:
slice = <md5 hashes array>
permutations = [0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5, 1, 6, 5, 1, 5, 7, 8, 7, 9]
for i in range(len(serial)):
if md5(serial[i]) != slice[permutations[i]]:
print "Bad boy"

print "Good boy"
To recover the key, in theory, we just need to calculate the md5 for each character in the ASCII table, and compare its hash with the one found in the program. But like any theoretical solution, it does not work in practice for obscure reasons ...

## Key recovery and crackme pwning
Not understanding what is happening, I ended up opting for a more radical solution: I executed the MD5 implementation of the binary directly, controlling the radare2's debugger via r2pipe from my python script. After a few tries, I managed to make the following script:
import r2pipe
import hashlib
import binascii
import os

flag_md5_offsets = [0xb, 0x06, 0x0a, 0x0c, 0x7, 0x5, 0x9, 0x22, 0x8, 0x2]
hashes = []
alphabet_dict = {}

r2 = r2pipe.open("goaway.unpack")
r2.cmd("db 0x48c10f")
r2.cmd("db 0x48b812")
r2.cmd("db 0x48c21e")
r2.cmd("db 0x48c223")
for i in range(0, 0x7f):
r2.cmd("dr edx=%d" % i)
r2.cmd("dr rip=0x%x" % 0x48c1ff)
r2.cmd("s rsp+0x4f; wx 0x%x" % (i << 16 | 0x10))
md5 = binascii.hexlify(bytes(r2.cmdj("pxj 16 @rsp+0x18")))
alphabet_dict[md5] = chr(i)

chars = []
for offset in flag_md5_offsets:
addr = 0x4bf20c + (offset * 16)
nochr = binascii.hexlify(bytes(r2.cmdj("pxj 16 @0x%x" % addr)))

subst = [0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5, 1, 6, 5, 1, 5, 7, 8, 7, 9]
toto = ""
for i in subst:
toto += chars[i]

The script directly gives us the right flag, "secretkeykeklol1". However, the program is picky, and when you give it the right flag, you get
hmmmm...... key is correct! But I changed my mind about printing you a flag
Instead, I will display you a flag for the key 'testtesttesttest'
flag: <non-printable chars>

The validation flag is therefore encrypted, and according to our renaming work, is encrypted in AES. The key "testtesttesttest", encoded in hexadecimal form, is passed to the `main.ExampleNewCBCDecrypter` function (which does AES CBC as its name suggests, thank you Captain Obvious). As we are in a CTF, we will replace the barely decoded key with our flag, then continue the execution via:

$ r2 -d ./goaway.unpack
-- Everybody hates warnings. Mr. Pancake, tear down this -Wall
[0x0044fd80]> db 0x48b642
[0x0044fd80]> dc
Go away I will not give you a flag!
But if you guess the key I'll print you a flag....
guess: secretkeykeklol1
hmmmm...... key is correct! But I changed my mind about printing you a flag
Instead, I will display you a flag for the key 'testtesttesttest'
flag: hit breakpoint at: 48b642
[0x0048b642]> w secretkeykeklol1 @rax
[0x0048b642]> dc
We recovered our validation flag (and I was the one to first blood this challenge, w00t !)


Original writeup (http://real-asm.infos.st/topic/8/writeup-aeroctf-goaway).