Rating:

## Challenge name: [basics] crypto

### Description:
> Can you make it through all of the encodings?
>
> P.S: given files: *binary.txt*

### Solution:

We take a look at the text file, we see zeros and ones, separated by space. We use ASCII for decoding them:

f = open('binary.txt', 'r')
arr = arr.split(' ')

output = ''
for i in arr:
output += chr(int(i, 2))

print output

**Output**

Uh-oh, looks like we have another block of text, with some sort of special encoding. Can you figure out what this encoding is? (hint: if you look carefully, you'll notice that there only characters present are A-Z, a-z, 0-9, and sometimes / and +. See if you can find an encoding that looks like this one.)
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

This is Base64! lets decode this too:

from base64 import b64decode
b = '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'

output2 = b64decode(b)
print output2

**Output**

New challenge! Can you figure out what's going on here? It looks like the letters are shifted by some constant. (hint: you might want to start looking up Roman people).
kvbsqrd, iye'bo kvwycd drobo! Xyg pyb dro psxkv (kxn wkilo dro rkbnocd...) zkbd: k celcdsdedsyx mszrob. Sx dro pyvvygsxq dohd, S'fo dkuox wi wocckqo kxn bozvkmon ofobi kvzrklodsm mrkbkmdob gsdr k mybboczyxnoxmo dy k nsppoboxd mrkbkmdob - uxygx kc k celcdsdedsyx mszrob. Mkx iye psxn dro psxkv pvkq? rsxd: Go uxyg drkd dro pvkq sc qysxq dy lo yp dro pybwkd edpvkq{...} - grsmr wokxc drkd sp iye coo drkd zkddobx, iye uxyg grkd dro mybboczyxnoxmoc pyb e, d, p, v k, kxn q kbo. Iye mkx zbylklvi gybu yed dro bowksxsxq mrkbkmdobc li bozvkmsxq drow kxn sxpobbsxq mywwyx gybnc sx dro Oxqvscr vkxqekqo. Kxydrob qbokd wodryn sc dy eco pboaeoxmi kxkvicsc: go uxyg drkd 'o' crygc ez wycd ypdox sx dro kvzrklod, cy drkd'c zbylklvi dro wycd mywwyx mrkbkmdob sx dro dohd, pyvvygon li 'd', kxn cy yx. Yxmo iye uxyg k pog mrkbkmdobc, iye mkx sxpob dro bocd yp dro gybnc lkcon yx mywwyx gybnc drkd cryg ez sx dro Oxqvscr vkxqekqo.
rghnxsdfysdtghu! qgf isak cthtuike dik zknthhkx rxqldgnxsliq risyykhnk. ikxk tu s cysn cgx syy qgfx isxe kccgxdu: fdcysn{h0v_di4du_vi4d_t_r4yy_rxqld0}. qgf vtyy cthe disd s ygd gc rxqldgnxsliq tu pfud zftyethn gcc ditu ugxd gc zsutr bhgvykenk, she td xksyyq tu hgd ug zse scdkx syy. iglk qgf khpgqke dik risyykhnk!

Roman people! Sounds like we have a Caeser Cipher. We can Bruteforce to find plain_text:

def brute_force(cipher_text):
print("------------Bruteforcing-------------")
for i in range(26):
m_text = ""
print("====== Executing with key:%c ======" % (chr(i + ord('A'))))
for c in cipher_text:
if (c >= 'A' and c <= 'Z'):
m_text += chr(((26 - i + ord(c) - ord('A')) % 26) + ord('A'))
elif (c >= 'a' and c <= 'z'):
m_text += chr(((26 - i + ord(c) - ord('a')) % 26) + ord('a'))
else:
m_text += c
print(m_text)
print("----------End of Bruteforce----------")

By looking to output, we catch this:

alright, you're almost there! Now for the final (and maybe the hardest...) part: a substitution cipher. In the following text, I've taken my message and replaced every alphabetic character with a correspondence to a different character - known as a substitution cipher. Can you find the final flag? hint: We know that the flag is going to be of the format utflag{...} - which means that if you see that pattern, you know what the correspondences for u, t, f, l a, and g are. You can probably work out the remaining characters by replacing them and inferring common words in the English language. Another great method is to use frequency analysis: we know that 'e' shows up most often in the alphabet, so that's probably the most common character in the text, followed by 't', and so on. Once you know a few characters, you can infer the rest of the words based on common words that show up in the English language.
hwxdnitvoitjwxk! gwv yiqa sjxjkyau tya padjxxan hngbtwdnibyg hyiooaxda. yana jk i soid swn ioo gwvn yinu asswntk: vtsoid{x0l_ty4tk_ly4t_j_h4oo_hngbt0}. gwv ljoo sjxu tyit i owt ws hngbtwdnibyg jk fvkt pvjoujxd wss tyjk kwnt ws pikjh rxwloauda, ixu jt naioog jk xwt kw piu istan ioo. ywba gwv axfwgau tya hyiooaxda!

Seems we are at the last section! I use [quipqiup](https://quipqiup.com/) website for attacking substitution cipher. And with the help of hint, we know vtsoid=utflag.

**Output**

congratulations! you have finished the beginner cryptography challenge. here is a flag for all your hard efforts: utflag{n0w_th4ts_wh4t_i_c4ll_crypt0}. you will find that a lot of cryptography is just building off this sort of basic knowledge, and it really is not so bad after all. hope you enjoyed the challenge!

[final script.py](./script.py)

**The Flag**

utflag{n0w_th4ts_wh4t_i_c4ll_crypt0}

Original writeup (https://github.com/RaaCT0R/CTF-Challenges/blob/master/cryptography/utctf2020/basics-crypto/WRITEUP.md).