Rating: 4.0

## Arithmetic
![date](https://img.shields.io/badge/date-11.02.2020-brightgreen.svg) ![general category](https://img.shields.io/badge/Category-General-lightgrey.svg) ![score](https://img.shields.io/badge/score-150-blue.svg)

### Description
Ian is exceptionally bad at arthimetic and needs some help on a problem: x + 2718281828 = 42. This should be simple... right?

HINT: What does uint32_t mean?

### Solution
I was really stuck on this problem mainly because the math didn't add up (get it?!) They're asking us to input a number that stands true to the comparison. But what threw me off was that you CAN'T input negative numbers. A normal person would think its:
x = -2718281786
So I was stuck. Until I looked at the hint. "What does uint32_t mean?".
uint_32 is the same as an unsigned integer. Ok so that explains why we couldn't use negatives. But when I searched up "uint_32 vulnerability" I found a CVE talking something called "integer overflow". What's that you ask?
Integer overflow occurs when an arithmetic operation (+/-/*//) attempts to create a numeric value that is outside of the range that can be represented with a given number of digits.
Since we know that uint_32 is an integer, we know that its maximum value is 2^32-1 which is 4294967295.
> Tip: There is also uint_16 (short) and uint_64 (long) which have different max values as well!

So an integer overflow occurs when you go over the limit of its expected value so the value turns into 0.

After this aha moment, I did the maths:
4294967296 - 2718281828 + 42 = 1576685510

> The reason why I added one to uint_32's maximum value (4294967295) is because we also need to account for when the value turns to 0

So once I entered the number, I received the flag!

> nc challenges.ctfd.io 30165
Enter your number:
flag: nactf{0verfl0w_1s_c00l_6e3bk1t5}

### Flag

Original writeup (https://github.com/JoshuEo/CTFs/tree/master/NACTF_2020).