Tags: volatility forensics strings 


# Raided


This was a fun challenge to begin with in the Forensics category but I was a bit dissapointed at the end.

The memory dump is from a Linux operating system. We can use strings to find the kernel version and it seems to be a Kali kernel.


My first idea was to build a profile for Volatility2 as that's the one I'm mostly used to using. We can search the release history to find the one we need:


The release history gives us the file we need right away as it is clearly dated in May.


The version for various platforms can be found here:


I downloaded the VM, ran it in VMWare, booted up and installed Volatility to make the module.dwarf file and create a Profile:

git clone https://github.com/volatilityfoundation/volatility
cd volatility/tools/linux/
sudo zip $(lsb_release -i -s)_$(uname -r)_profile.zip ./volatility/tools/linux/module.dwarf /boot/System.map-$(uname -r)

The first issue I encountered was during the `make` process but googling the error I was able to quickly fix it:


I got my profile but sadly it didn't work. It wasn't even detected by Volatility. I spent quite some time on this as it involved some research and downloading some big files.

I got frustrated and reverted to using `strings`. I found some information this way. Knowing we are dealing with Kali, I grepped for the zshell to find the name of the user:


I then looked for other stuff where the user `l33t` name comes up. One of them was him using an SSH key to connect to an IP address.


I made a screenshot and put it to the side. I figured maybe we need to get the file dumped from memory somehow, with Volatility. So, I switched to Volatility3. I had the idea to create a symbols table for it since I already had the VM with the proper kernel running.

sudo apt install linux-image-amd64 linux-image-amd64-dbg
git clone https://github.com/volatilityfoundation/dwarf2json
cd dwarf2json
go build
./dwarf2json linux --elf /usr/lib/debug/boot/vmlinux-6.1.0-kali9-amd64 >kaliprofile.json
The process killed itself a couple of times and then I increased the VM RAM to 8GB. It seems it is required to have at least 8GB of RAM for dwarf2json to complete. I was finally able to create the symbols table, copied the resulted json file in `/opt/volatility3/volatility3/framework/symbols/linux` and now we can run commands and list processes running at the time of the memory dump:

vol3 -f raided-challenge-dump-vmem linux.psaux.PsAux

Again we see the use of the RSA key to SSH into that IP address. I kept looking for ways to enumerate files in Volatility3 like you can with Volatility2 but gave up and reverted back to `strings`.

I grepped for the `BEGIN OPENSS PRIVATE KEY` that is within the RSA key and added the `-A 10` flag for grep to show 10 lines after the match and I found the key.


When I saw this, I facepalmed. I could've been done within 5 minutes with two strings + grep commands. I enjoy memory forensics but this one left me with a sour taste, even though at least I learned how to build the symbols table for Volatility3.


Anyway, we SSH in just like the user and it turns out that the IP is valid and live and we get the flag:



Original writeup (https://github.com/LazyTitan33/CTF-Writeups/blob/main/Nahamcon2023/Forensics/Raided.md).